Transmission range estimation

Transmission range estimation

Maximum transmission range (e.g., the maximum distance where beacon signal can be received) depends on several factors. The most important is the transmitted power: the higher is the TX power, the longer is the distance, but there is no linearity between these two quantities, due to propagation laws. Other aspects that impact on transmission range are:
- beacon installation position: the higher is the beacon above ground, the greater is the distance;
- operating environment: propagation scenario, presence of obstacles, objects (especially metals and liquids), people, between and/or nearby the beacon and the receiver, have a non-negligible effect on distance;
- receiver performances: gain and sensitivity of the receiver vary among different smartphone models, and sensitivity can be also affected by external factors, such as presence of radiating wireless devices nearby;
- other factors: including reciprocal orientation between beacon and smartphone, the way the user holds the smartphone in his/her hand;
The following table offers the theoretical maximum distance, for different beacon TX power values, evaluated under the hypothesis of a receiver (smartphone) with -90dBm sensitivity (minimum value of RSSI). Results are obtained in case of beacon and smartphone at 1.5 mt above ground, in LOS free-space condition.


+4 dBm
100 m
100 m
110 m

80 m
0 dBm
60 m
60 m
65 m

50 m
30 m
-8 dBm
25 m
25 m
30 m

20 m
12 m
-20 dBm
6 m
6 m
7 m

5 m
3 m

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